Each person needs individualized treatment. Type-1 diabetes always requires insulin, diet, and exercise. Type-2 diabetics require insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents (medication that helps lower blood sugar), if diet and exercise alone fail to lower blood glucose. If you have diabetes, you need to have a medical team (doctor, nutritionist, and health educator or nurse) working with you. Whichever type of diabetes you have, the key to proper control is balancing the glucose and the insulin in the blood. This means adjusting your diet, activity, and sometimes taking medication.[29,30]
She still plans to lose more weight, but she knows that slow and steady beats the quick loss (and equally quick regain) she experienced on countless fad diets in her past. Because she's not trying to drop a dress size—she wants to change her life. "My goal is to be as healthy as I can," she says. "If something happens and one day I'm back on medication, my goal is still to be healthy."
Talk to your friends and family beforehand about your reasons for eating healthy. Tell them it's important to your long-term health that you stay on your healthy eating plan and ask them not to encourage you to eat things that aren't good for you. Friends and family are often just trying to demonstrate their love by wanting you to enjoy a dessert, however mistaken that is. Help them understand they can best help you by not making it more difficult to stay on track and by supporting you in your efforts to take good care of yourself.
Choose carbs wisely: The glycemic index (GI) is a value assigned to foods based on how quickly or slowly they spike your blood sugar levels. For someone with diabetes, high GI foods (like refined sugar or other simple carbohydrates like white rice and bread) can cause blood glucose levels to shoot up rapidly. Make sure that your carbs are high-fiber, whole grains – like legumes, brown rice, or quinoa – as these foods are high in nutrients and break down slowly into the bloodstream.
Prediabetes is a serious health condition where blood sugar levels are higher than normal, but not high enough yet to be diagnosed as type 2 diabetes. Approximately 84 million American adults—more than 1 out of 3—have prediabetes. Of those with prediabetes, 90% don’t know they have it. Prediabetes puts you at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and stroke.

Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
How do sugary drinks lead to this increased risk? Weight gain may explain the link: In both the Nurses’ Health Study II and the Black Women’s Health Study, women who increased their consumption of sugary drinks gained more weight than women who cut back on sugary drinks. (26, 28) Several studies show that children and adults who drink soda or other sugar-sweetened beverages are more likely to gain weight than those who don’t, (28, 30) and that switching from these to water or unsweetened beverages can reduce weight. (31) Even so, however, weight gain caused by sugary drinks may not completely explain the increased diabetes risk.  There is mounting evidence that sugary drinks contribute to chronic inflammation, high triglycerides, decreased “good” (HDL) cholesterol, and increased insulin resistance, all of which are risk factors for diabetes. (32)
When adjusted for family history, the benefits of exercise can be evaluated based on previous studies. Of note, for every 500 kcal burned weekly through exercise, there is a 6% decrease in relative risk for the development of diabetes. This data is from a study done in men who were followed over a period of 10 years. The study also notes a greater benefit in men who were heavier at baseline. There have been similar reports on the effects of exercise in women.
Although support groups aren't for everyone, they can be good sources of information. Group members often know about the latest treatments and tend to share their own experiences or helpful information, such as where to find carbohydrate counts for your favorite takeout restaurant. If you're interested, your doctor may be able to recommend a group in your area.
Of course, talk to your doctor before starting any exercise regime to make sure you’re doing activities that are safe for your health and situation.  Also, make sure your doctor approves significant changes in your diet.  This article provides general information, and is not a substitute for medical advice.  Only a licensed medical professional can diagnose and treat medical conditions such as diabetes.
Don’t be surprised if you have to use multiple medications to control the blood sugar. Multiple medications, also known as combination therapy is common in the treatment of diabetes! If one medication is not enough, you medical provider may give you two or three or more different types of pills. Insulin or other injected medications also may be prescribed. Or, depending on your medical condition, you may be treated only with insulin or injected medication therapy.

There is an association between the lengthening of the menstrual cycle and the risk for developing diabetes, particularly in obese women. In a national study of nurses, those who had a cycle length of greater than 40 days were twice as likely to develop diabetes then those who cycled every 26 to 31 days. The association is thought to be related to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), which also is known to be associated with insulin resistance. Insulin resistance may be a precursor for type 2 diabetes.

Foods might sometimes appear to be packaged into individual serving sizes even though they contain two or more servings per package. To determine that, look at "serving size" and "servings per container" at the top of any food label. For example, if a serving size is 1 and there are 2 servings per container, you will need to double all of the nutrient values on the label in order to get a clear picture of the value of the entire container.
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