According to the study conducted by Bani25 in Saudi Arabia, majority of the patients 97.3% males and 93.1% females were unaware about the importance of monitoring diabetes, with no significant gender difference. Diabetes knowledge, attitude, and practice were also studied in Qatari type 2 diabetics. The patients’ knowledge regarding diabetes was very poor, and their knowledge regarding the effect of diabetes on feet was also not appreciable.26 Results from a study conducted in Najran, Saudi Arabia27 reported that almost half of the patients did not have adequate knowledge regarding diabetes disease. Males in this study had more knowledge regarding diabetes than female patients. Diabetes knowledge among self-reported diabetic female teachers was studied in Al-Khobar, Saudi Arabia.28 The study concluded that diabetes knowledge among diabetic female teachers was very poor. It was further suggested that awareness and education about diabetes should be urgently given to sample patients. The knowledge of diabetes provides the information about eating attitude, workout, weight monitoring, blood glucose levels, and use of medication, eye care, foot care, and control of diabetes complications.29
There is an association between the lengthening of the menstrual cycle and the risk for developing diabetes, particularly in obese women. In a national study of nurses, those who had a cycle length of greater than 40 days were twice as likely to develop diabetes then those who cycled every 26 to 31 days. The association is thought to be related to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), which also is known to be associated with insulin resistance. Insulin resistance may be a precursor for type 2 diabetes.
Combining the Nurses’ Health Study results with those from seven other studies found a similar link between sugary beverage consumption and type 2 diabetes: For every additional 12-ounce serving of sugary beverage that people drank each day, their risk of type 2 diabetes rose 25 percent. (27) Studies also suggest that fruit drinks— Kool Aid, fortified fruit drinks, or juices—are not the healthy choice that food advertisements often portray them to be: Women in the Black Women’s Health study who drank two or more servings of fruit drinks a day had a 31 percent higher risk of type 2 diabetes, compared to women who drank less than one serving a month. (28)
The evidence is growing stronger that eating red meat (beef, pork, lamb) and processed red meat (bacon, hot dogs, deli meats) increases the risk of diabetes, even among people who consume only small amounts. The latest support comes from a “meta analysis,” or statistical summary, that combined findings from the long-running Nurses’ Health Study I and II and the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study with those of six other long-term studies. The researchers looked at data from roughly 440,000 people, about 28,000 of whom developed diabetes during the course of the study. (43) They found that eating just one daily 3-ounce serving of red meat—say, a steak that’s about the size of a deck of cards—increased the risk of type 2 diabetes by 20 percent. Eating even smaller amounts of processed red meat each day—just two slices of bacon, one hot dog, or the like—increased diabetes risk by 51 percent.
The American Diabetes Association (ADA) advocates for a healthy diet with an emphasis on balancing energy intake with exercise. Historically, they have advocated for the majority of calories coming from complex carbohydrates from whole grains such as whole-grain bread and other whole-grain cereal products and a decreased intake of total fat with most of it coming from unsaturated fat.
While diabetes is characterized by high blood sugar values, type 2 diabetes is also associated with a condition known as insulin resistance. Even though there is an element of impaired insulin secretion from the beta cells of the pancreas, especially when toxic levels of glucose occur (when blood sugars are constantly very high), the major defect in type 2 diabetes is the body's inability to respond properly to insulin.
Veggies, first: Research suggests that eating vegetables and lean proteins before carbohydrates may result in a lower rise in blood sugar levels over the next few hours (as compared to eating the same foods in the opposite order). While more research is needed on this topic, it’s possible that eating protein and veggies first is delaying how fast the carbohydrates get absorbed.
Controlling Type II Diabetes by diet is an absolute must. Eating low glycemic foods and staying away from highly processed foods that contain hidden toxins as well as hidden sugars is important. You cannot always trust food labels so I suggest eating as many foods that DO NOT have labels – fresh vegetables, lean proteins and nutrient rich complex carbohydrates. Some examples include, spinach, kale, asparagus, broccoli, brussel sprouts, sweet potatoes, quinoa, brown rice or bean pastas – and of course lots of lean proteins from chicken, turkey and fish. Eliminate high sugar vegetables such as peas, carrots and corn and stay away from white foods such as white flour, bread, pastries, cakes, dairy and milk products (eggs are ok).
To hit your blood sugar level target, eat a variety of foods but monitor portions for foods with a high carbohydrate content, says Alison Massey, RD, CDE, the director of diabetes education at Mercy Medical Center in Baltimore. “[Foods high in carbohydrates] have the most impact on blood sugar level. This is why some people with diabetes count their carbohydrates at meals and snacks,” she says.
In recent times in Saudi Arabia, food choices, size of portions and sedentary lifestyle have increased dramatically that resulted in high risk of obesity. Unfortunately, many Saudis are becoming more obese because of the convenience of fast foods, and this adds to the scary diabetes statistics.45 On the other hand, Saudis drink too many high-sugar drinks. In addition, Backman46 reported dietary knowledge to be a significant factor that influences dietary behaviors. In another study conducted by Savoca and Miller47 stated that patients’ food selection and dietary behaviors may be influenced by the strong knowledge about diabetic diet recommendations. Significant positive relationship was observed between knowledge regarding diabetic diet and the amount of calorie needs (r = 0.27, p < 0.05).48 The study concluded that knowledge regarding diabetic diet is essential and is needed to achieve better dietary behaviors. Results of study conducted in Saudi Arabia25 reported that more than half of the diabetic patients denied modifying their dietary pattern, reduction in weight and perform exercise.
Food sources of carbohydrates should always be eaten WITH a source of protein and or unsaturated (“healthy”) fat. Fat and protein digest more slowly which helps prevent blood sugar spikes. Examples of balanced snacks that combine carbohydrate foods with protein/fat include, apple with peanut butter; berries with plain Greek yogurt; whole wheat toast with almond butter; baked potato with cottage cheese.
Following a type 2 diabetes diet doesn’t mean you have to give up all the things you love — you can still enjoy a wide range of foods and, in some cases, even help reverse type 2 diabetes. Indeed, creating a diet for type 2 diabetes is a balancing act: It includes a variety of healthy carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. The trick is ultimately choosing the right combination of foods that will help keep your blood sugar level in your target range and avoid big swings that can cause type 2 diabetes symptoms — from the frequent urination and thirst of high blood sugar to the fatigue, dizziness, headaches, and mood changes of low blood sugar (hypoglycemia).

Protein foods include meat, poultry, seafood, eggs, beans and peas, nuts, seeds, and processed soy foods. Eat fish and poultry more often. Remove the skin from chicken and turkey. Select lean cuts of beef, veal, pork, or wild game. Trim all visible fat from meat. Bake, roast, broil, grill, or boil instead of frying. When frying proteins, use healthy oils such as olive oil.
If you choose to drink alcohol, remember: To drink with your meal or snack (not on an empty stomach!), to drink slowly or dilute with water or diet soda, that liqueurs, sweet wines and dessert wines have a lot of sugar, to wear your Medic Alert (Alcohol can cause hypoglycemia/low blood glucose), reducing alcohol can promote weight loss and help you lower your blood pressure.

If you choose to drink alcohol, remember: To drink with your meal or snack (not on an empty stomach!), to drink slowly or dilute with water or diet soda, that liqueurs, sweet wines and dessert wines have a lot of sugar, to wear your Medic Alert (Alcohol can cause hypoglycemia/low blood glucose), reducing alcohol can promote weight loss and help you lower your blood pressure.
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