Get regular exercise. Exercise has many health benefits, including helping you to lose weight and lower your blood sugar levels. These both lower your risk of type 2 diabetes. Try to get at least 30 minutes of physical activity 5 days a week. If you have not been active, talk with your health care professional to figure out which types of exercise are best for you. You can start slowly and work up to your goal.
While some people attempt to manage their type 2 diabetes with diet and exercise alone, this may not work for everyone. In fact, though the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates 16 percent of people with diabetes don't take medication, the majority of people with diabetes require insulin or oral meds at some point, often at diagnosis.
Food can be powerful in preventing and reversing diabetes. However, dietary approaches have changed as we have learned more about the disease. The traditional approach to diabetes focuses on limiting refined sugars and foods that release sugars during digestion-starches, breads, fruits, etc. With carbohydrates reduced, the diet may contain an unhealthful amount of fat and protein. Therefore, diabetes experts have taken care to limit fats- especially saturated fats that can raise cholesterol levels, and to limit protein for people with impaired kidney function. The new approach focuses more attention on fat. Fat is a problem for people with diabetes. The more fat there is in the diet, the harder time insulin has in getting glucose into the cells. Conversely, minimizing fat intake and reducing body fat help insulin do its job much better. Newer treatment programs drastically reduce meats, high-fat dairy products, and oils.[46,47,48,49,50] At the same time, they increase grains, legumes, fruits, and vegetables. The study found that patients on oral medications and patients on insulin were able to get off of their medications after some days on a near-vegetarian diet and exercise program. During 2 and 3-year follow-ups, most people with diabetes treated with this regimen have retained their gains. The dietary changes are simple, but profound, and they work.[51,52,53] 

In addition, many sugar-containing foods also contain a lot of fat. Foods such as cookies, pastries, ice cream and cakes should be avoided largely because of the fat content and because they don't contribute much nutritional value. If you do want a "sweet," make a low-fat choice, such as low-fat frozen yogurt, gingersnaps, fig bars, or graham crackers and substitute it for other carbohydrates on your meal plan.

Choose fresh or frozen vegetables without added sauces, fats, or salt. Non-starchy vegetables include dark green and deep yellow vegetables, such as cucumber, spinach, broccoli, romaine lettuce, cabbage, chard, and bell peppers. Starchy vegetables include corn, green peas, lima beans, carrots, yams and taro. Note that potato should be considered a pure starch, like white bread or white rice, instead of a vegetable.


Imagine our bodies to be a sugar bowl. A bowl of sugar. When we are young, our sugar bowl is empty. Over decades, we eat too much of the wrong things – sugary cereals, desserts and white bread. The sugar bowl gradually fills up with sugar until completely full. The next time you eat, sugar comes into the body, but the bowl is full, so it spills out into the blood.
Hemoglobin A1c or HbA1c is a protein on the surface of red blood cells. The HbA1c test is used to monitor blood sugar levels in people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes over time. Normal HbA1c levels are 6% or less. HbA1c levels can be affected by insulin use, fasting, glucose intake (oral or IV), or a combination of these and other factors. High hemoglobin A1c levels in the blood increases the risk of microvascular complications, for example, diabetic neuropathy, eye, and kidney disease.
DM can be controlled through improvement in patient’s dietary knowledge, attitudes, and practices. These factors are considered as an integral part of comprehensive diabetes care.51 Although the prevalence of DM is high in gulf countries, patients are still deficient in understanding the importance of diet in diabetes management.52 Studies have shown that assessing patients’ dietary attitude may have a considerable benefit toward treatment compliance and decrease the occurrence rate of complications as well.52 A study conducted in Egypt reported that the attitude of the patients toward food, compliance to treatment, food control with and without drug use and foot care was inadequate.53 Another study presented that one-third of the diabetic patients were aware about the importance of diet planning, and limiting cholesterol intake to prevent CVD. Various studies have documented increased prevalence of eating disorders and eating disorder symptoms in T2DM patients. Most of these studies have discussed about the binge eating disorder, due to its strong correlation with obesity, a condition that leads to T2DM.53 Furthermore, a study revealed that the weight gain among diabetic patients was associated with the eating disorder due to psychological distress.54 In another study that examined eating disorder-related symptoms in T2DM patients, suggested that the dieting-bingeing sequence can be applied to diabetics, especially obese diabetic patients.55 Unhealthy eating habits and physical inactivity are the leading causes of diabetes. Failure to follow a strict diet plan and workout, along with prescribed medication are leading causes of complications among patients of T2DM.56 Previous studies57 conducted in Saudi Arabia have reported that diabetic patients do not regard the advice given by their physicians regularly regarding diet planning, diet modification and exercise.
Counting carbohydrates: Dietary fiber may be listed underneath the listing for total carbohydrates. Dietary fiber is not digested by the body and can be subtracted from the total amount of carbohydrates present in food. This gives the net carbohydrates and will give a more accurate count of how much of the carbohydrates that affect blood sugar are present.
Checking your blood glucose levels several times a day helps you understand how your body responds to medications, exercise, and the foods you eat. When first starting out, keeping your glucose within a tight margin can often feel like hitting a moving target. It can suddenly spike with no reason or plummet the next day despite total adherence to your treatment.
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Low-carbohydrate diets have gotten a lot of attention recently as strategies for reversing prediabetes. The carbohydrates in your diet that provide calories include sugars and starches. Starches are in grains and flour, beans, and starchy vegetables. Added sugars include sugars in sweets, sweetened foods such as flavored oatmeal and ketchup, and sugar-sweetened beverages such as soda. There are also natural sugars, which are found in nutritious foods such as dairy products and fruit.
Here’s another big plus to our Shopping List for Diabetics. In addition to icons that are diabetes-focused like “sugar free,” this list uses icons like “low cholesterol” and “low sodium” because many people with diabetes are working to control not just diabetes but related conditions like high cholesterol levels and high blood pressure.  This list can help you identify those foods most advantageous in helping you reach your personal health goals.

The Life! program is a Victorian lifestyle modification program that helps you reduce your risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Run by expert health professionals, the program is delivered as a Group Course or a Telephone Health Coaching service. Funded by the Victorian Government and managed by Diabetes Victoria it is the biggest prevention program of its type in Australia.
Unlike many health conditions, diabetes is managed mostly by you, with support from your health care team (including your primary care doctor, foot doctor, dentist, eye doctor, registered dietitian nutritionist, diabetes educator, and pharmacist), family, and other important people in your life. Managing diabetes can be challenging, but everything you do to improve your health is worth it!

I believe that individuals with and without Type 2 diabetes need to ensure they are eating at least eight servings of non-starchy vegetables like broccoli, cauliflower, dark leafy greens, bell peppers, green beans, okra, and so much more. One serving of vegetable is equal to 1cup, which is really about one handful worth. If you cook one serving of say greens, it will shrink, but it still counts!


You can talk to your diabetes health care team about making any necessary meal or medication adjustments when you exercise. They'll offer specific suggestions to help you get ready for exercise or join a sport and give you written instructions to help you respond to any diabetes problems that may happen during exercise, like hypoglycemia (low blood sugar), or hyperglycemia (high blood sugar).
Aside from weight, certain nutrients are linked to improved health and lower diabetes risk. For example, increasing consumption of vegetables, fruits, and beans, eating more whole grains instead of refined, and choosing olive oil can all lower diabetes risk. Limiting sweets, refined carbohydrates such as white bread and pasta, and unhealthy fats from fried foods and fatty meats are examples of dietary patterns to slow any progression of prediabetes.
The role of diet in the etiology of T2DM was proposed by Indians as mentioned earlier, who observed that the disease was almost confined to rich people who consumed oil, flour, and sugar in excessive amounts.30 During the First and Second World Wars, declines in the diabetes mortality rates were documented due to food shortage and famines in the involved countries such as Germany and other European countries. In Berlin, diabetes mortality rate declined from 23.1/100,000 in 1914 to 10.9 in 1919. In contrast, there was no change in diabetes mortality rate in other countries with no shortage of food at the same time period such as Japan and North American countries.31 Whereas few studies have found strong association of T2DM with high intake of carbohydrates and fats. Many studies have reported a positive association between high intake of sugars and development of T2DM.32 In a study, Ludwig33 investigated more than 500 ethnically diverse schoolchildren for 19 months. It was found that for each additional serving of carbonated drinks consumed, frequency of obesity increased, after adjusting for different parameters such as dietary, demographic, anthropometric, and lifestyle.
The "Nutrition Facts" label on most foods is the best way to get carbohydrate information, but not all foods have labels. Your local bookstore and library have books that list the carbohydrate in restaurant foods, fast foods, convenience foods and fresh foods. You will still need to weigh or measure the foods to know the amount of grams of carbohydrates present.
In general, prediabetes is not associated with any specific symptoms. However, there may be indicators of problems in blood sugar metabolism that can be seen years before the development of overt diabetes. Health-care professionals in the field of endocrinology are now routinely looking at these indicators in patients who are high risk for developing diabetes.
DM is the fourth among the leading causes of global deaths due to complications. Annually, more than three million people die because of diabetes or its complications. Worldwide, this disease weighs down on health systems and also on patients and their families who have to face too much financial, social and emotional strains. Diabetic patients have an increased risk of developing complications such as stroke, myocardial infarction, and coronary artery disease. However, complications such as retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy can have a distressing impact on patient’s quality of life and a significant increase in financial burden. The prevalence reported from studies conducted worldwide on the complications of T2DM showed varying rates. The prevalence of cataracts was 26-62%, retinopathy 17-50%, blindness 3%, nephropathy 17-28%, cardiovascular complications 10-22.5%, stroke 6-12%, neuropathy 19-42%, and foot problems 5-23%. Mortality from all causes was reported between 14% and 40%.71 In a study, researchers found that 15.8% incidence of DR is in the developing countries. The prevalence of DR reported from Saudi Arabia, Sri Lanka, and Brazil was 30%, 31.3%, and 35.4%, respectively; while in Kashmir it was 27% and in South Africa it was 40%. The prevalence of DR 26.1% was observed among 3000 diabetic patients from Pakistan; it was significantly higher than that what was reported in India (18%) and in Malaysia (14.9%).72-76 Studies conducted on diabetes complications in Saudi Arabia are very few and restricted. A 1992 study from Saudi Arabia showed that in T2DM patients; occurrence rate of cataract was 42.7%, neuropathy in 35.9% patients, retinopathy in 31.5% patients, hypertension in 25% patients, nephropathy in 17.8% patients, ischemic heart disease in 41.3% patients, stroke in 9.4% patients, and foot infections in 10.4% of the patients. However, this study reported complications for both types of diabetes.77
Serious urinary tract infections (UTI), some that lead to hospitalization, occurred in people taking FARXIGA. Tell your doctor if you have any signs or symptoms of UTI including a burning feeling when passing urine, a need to urinate often, the need to urinate right away, pain in the lower part of your stomach (pelvis), or blood in the urine with or without fever, back pain, nausea, or vomiting
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The difference between glycemic index and glycemic load is that glycemic index is a standardized measurement and glycemic load accounts for a real-life portion size. For example, the glycemic index of a bowl of peas is 68 (per 100 grams) but its glycemic load is just 16 (lower the better). If you just referred to the glycemic index, you'd think peas were a bad choice, but in reality, you wouldn't eat 100 grams of peas. With a normal portion size, peas have a healthy glycemic load as well as being an excellent source of protein.
After the birth of her oldest son, Crawford went on Weight Watchers. Eight months later, she had dropped 40 pounds, had an A1C of 5.2, and was able to stop diabetes and blood pressure medications. Her workouts started with daily walks and progressed to cardio and strength training three to four times a week. "I was able to do things I couldn't do before," she says. "I can do push-ups. I can do sit-ups."
Treat yourself as you would a good friend who is struggling with a lifestyle change. You would be supportive and encouraging – a slip is not the end of it all. Sometimes it’s OK to indulge in a treat, but don’t feel guilty – enjoy it to the fullest – then get back on track. It’s OK to sit and read a book one day – just try to not make it the normal thing to do. I realized this morning when I had breakfast with a friend who is struggling with weight loss and I saw that the biggest difference was our attitude. She was moaning about how hard it was to lose and what she couldn’t eat and how much she had to work out, instead of looking at the fact that she has lost 20 pounds! That said, it’s not always easy to be positive, but all I really need to do is look back 4 months and I know I am making a difference.”
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