Finally, in yet another clinical study, adult participants with Type 2 diabetes were provided with an extract of Hintonia latiflora combined with trace nutrients (vitamins B1, B6, B12, folic acid, chromium, zinc, and vitamins C and E) for six months. These ingredients also help protect against oxidative damage to blood vessels, stop nerve damage and keep metabolism functioning the way that it should. But it is the hintonia that is the heavy hitter.

For this method, you will need to learn what foods have carbohydrate in them, what information to look for on a food label, and how to approximate a serving of carbohydrate when a food label is not available. Once you become familiar with these, you will be able to easily track your carbs to make sure you're not consuming too much. You may want to keep a log throughout the day.


In addition, as early as in 2008, the Swedish Board of Health and Welfare examined and approved advice on LCHF within the health care system. Advice on LCHF is, according to the Swedish Board of Health and Welfare’s review, in accordance with science and proven knowledge. In other words, certified healthcare professionals, who give such advice (for example myself) can feel completely confident.

While some people attempt to manage their type 2 diabetes with diet and exercise alone, this may not work for everyone. In fact, though the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates 16 percent of people with diabetes don't take medication, the majority of people with diabetes require insulin or oral meds at some point, often at diagnosis.
Sometimes life happens and we don’t always have time to prepare breakfast in the morning, pack a nutritious lunch, have healthy snacks readily available,and cook a balanced meal for dinner. If you find yourself unexpectedly stopping at a restaurant for a quick meal, a celebration dinner or to take a break from cooking, go in with motivation to make healthy choices. Try these meal modifications to stay within your daily calorie intake and still feel satisfied. Appetizers Choose an item… Continue reading »
It had been about a year since Akua Jitahadi felt like herself. But she was 51 and expected menopause to kick in soon. Plus, she and her daughter had just moved to oppressively hot Arizona. So she brushed off the tired, sluggish feeling as a side effect of being a middle-aged woman adjusting to sweltering temps. And then, overnight, her vision dimmed. Something was most definitely wrong.
Contrary to popular belief, not all carbs are off-limits if you’re managing diabetes. In fact, the ADA recommends vitamin-rich whole grains in a healthy diabetes diet. These foods contain fiber, which is beneficial for digestive health. Fiber can also promote feelings of fullness, preventing you from reaching for unhealthy snacks, and it can help slow the rise of blood sugar. Plus, whole grains contain healthy vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals that are healthy for anyone, regardless of whether they have diabetes or not.

What to drink in place of the sugary stuff? Water is an excellent choice. Coffee and tea are also good calorie-free substitutes for sugared beverages (as long as you don’t load them up with sugar and cream). And there’s convincing evidence that coffee may help protect against diabetes; (33, 34) emerging research suggests that tea may hold diabetes-prevention benefits as well, but more research is needed.
If you choose to drink alcohol, remember: To drink with your meal or snack (not on an empty stomach!), to drink slowly or dilute with water or diet soda, that liqueurs, sweet wines and dessert wines have a lot of sugar, to wear your Medic Alert (Alcohol can cause hypoglycemia/low blood glucose), reducing alcohol can promote weight loss and help you lower your blood pressure.
Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic condition in which a person's blood sugar (glucose) levels are too high. Over 29.1 million children and adults in the US have diabetes. Of that, 8.1 million people have diabetes and don't even know it. Type 1 diabetes (insulin-dependent, juvenile) is caused by a problem with insulin production by the pancreas. Type 2 diabetes (non-insulin dependent) is caused by:

Among the patients, diabetes awareness and management are still the major challenges faced by stakeholders worldwide. Poor knowledge related to diabetes is reported in many studies from the developing countries.18 Some studies have suggested that the occurrence of diabetes is different in various ethnic groups.19 Knowledge is a requirement to achieve better compliance with medical therapy.20 According to a study conducted by Mohammadi21 patient’s knowledge and self-care management regarding DM was not sufficient. Low awareness of DM affects the outcome of diabetes. Another study conducted in Slovakia by Magurová22 compared two groups of patients (those who received diabetes education and those who did not). The results indicated that receiving diabetes education significantly increased awareness about the disease in patients (p < 0.001). The study further concluded that having diabetes knowledge can notably improve patient’s quality of life and lessen the burden on their family. Dussa23 conducted a cross-sectional study on assessment of diabetes awareness in India. The study concluded that level of diabetes awareness among patients and general population was low. Another study conducted in India by Shah24 reported that 63% of T2DM patients did not know what DM is and the majority were also unaware about its complications.


While diabetes is characterized by high blood sugar values, type 2 diabetes is also associated with a condition known as insulin resistance. Even though there is an element of impaired insulin secretion from the beta cells of the pancreas, especially when toxic levels of glucose occur (when blood sugars are constantly very high), the major defect in type 2 diabetes is the body's inability to respond properly to insulin.
Among the patients, diabetes awareness and management are still the major challenges faced by stakeholders worldwide. Poor knowledge related to diabetes is reported in many studies from the developing countries.18 Some studies have suggested that the occurrence of diabetes is different in various ethnic groups.19 Knowledge is a requirement to achieve better compliance with medical therapy.20 According to a study conducted by Mohammadi21 patient’s knowledge and self-care management regarding DM was not sufficient. Low awareness of DM affects the outcome of diabetes. Another study conducted in Slovakia by Magurová22 compared two groups of patients (those who received diabetes education and those who did not). The results indicated that receiving diabetes education significantly increased awareness about the disease in patients (p < 0.001). The study further concluded that having diabetes knowledge can notably improve patient’s quality of life and lessen the burden on their family. Dussa23 conducted a cross-sectional study on assessment of diabetes awareness in India. The study concluded that level of diabetes awareness among patients and general population was low. Another study conducted in India by Shah24 reported that 63% of T2DM patients did not know what DM is and the majority were also unaware about its complications.
The result of his hard work? He lost 160 pounds in two years, normalized his high blood pressure and high cholesterol, has an A1C of 5.6, and no longer takes metformin and glyburide. His advice to others with type 2: "You need to have a plan, and you need to be consistent," he says. "[Diet and exercise are] something you need to do to survive and control it. Look at it as the same thing as taking a pill or insulin."
Diabetes mellitus (DM) was first recognized as a disease around 3000 years ago by the ancient Egyptians and Indians, illustrating some clinical features very similar to what we now know as diabetes.1 DM is a combination of two words, “diabetes” Greek word derivative, means siphon - to pass through and the Latin word “mellitus” means honeyed or sweet. In 1776, excess sugar in blood and urine was first confirmed in Great Britain.2,3 With the passage of time, a widespread knowledge of diabetes along with detailed etiology and pathogenesis has been achieved. DM is defined as “a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from either the deficiency in insulin secretion or the action of insulin.” The poorly controlled DM can lead to damage various organs, especially the eyes, kidney, nerves, and cardiovascular system.4 DM can be of three major types, based on etiology and clinical features. These are DM type 1 (T1DM), DM type 2 (T2DM), and gestational DM (GDM). In T1DM, there is absolute insulin deficiency due to the destruction of β cells in the pancreas by a cellular mediated autoimmune process. In T2DM, there is insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency. GDM is any degree of glucose intolerance that is recognized during pregnancy. DM can arise from other diseases or due to drugs such as genetic syndromes, surgery, malnutrition, infections, and corticosteroids intake.5-7
Checking your blood glucose levels several times a day helps you understand how your body responds to medications, exercise, and the foods you eat. When first starting out, keeping your glucose within a tight margin can often feel like hitting a moving target. It can suddenly spike with no reason or plummet the next day despite total adherence to your treatment.
Eat a Source of Protein with Breakfast: As the first meal of the day, breakfast can set the tone for your body’s blood sugar balance and overall mindset on eating well (which, of course is also affected by a steady blood sugar!). Many typical breakfast foods tend to be rich in carbohydrates (fruit, cereal, oatmeal, toast, etc.) which may lead to spikes in blood sugar if eaten in large quantities alone.Add in sources of protein, fiber and/or healthy fats to create a blood-sugar steadying breakfast: pair fruit with yogurt or cottage cheese, oatmeal with a spoonful of peanut or almond butter, or a slice or two of whole grain toast with a couple of eggs or hummus.
The beneficial effect of the dietary pattern on diabetes mellitus and glucose metabolism in general and traditional food pattern was associated with a significant reduction in the risk of developing type-2 diabetes. The dietary pattern emphasizes a consumption of fat primarily from foods high in unsaturated fatty acids, and encourages daily consumption of fruits, vegetables, low fat dairy products and whole grains, low consumption of fish, poultry, tree nuts, legumes, very less consumption of red meat.[18,19,20] The composition of diet is one of the best known dietary patterns for its beneficial effects on human health that may act beneficially against the development of type-2 diabetes, including reduced oxidative stress and insulin resistance. High consumption of vegetables, fruits, legumes, nuts, fish, cereals and oil leads to a high ratio of monounsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids, a low intake of trans fatty acids, and high ingestion of dietary fiber, antioxidants, polyphenols. The diets are characterized by a low degree of energy density overall; such diet prevent weight gain and exert a protective effect on the development of type-2 diabetes, a condition that is partially mediated through weight maintenance. Greater adherence to the diet in combination with light physical activity was associated with lower odds of having diabetes after adjustment for various factors.[21,22,23,24,25] On the other hand, a paleolithic diet (i.e., a diet consisting of lean meat, fish, shellfish, fruits and vegetables, roots, eggs and nuts, but not grains, dairy products, salt or refined fats, and sugar) was associated with marked improvement of glucose tolerance while control subjects who were advised to follow a diet did not significantly improve their glucose tolerance despite decreases in weight and waist circumference.[26,27,28] People most likely to get diabetes are: People who are overweight, upper-body obesity, have a family history of diabetes, age 40 or older, and women (50% more often than men).

Eventually, even though the pancreas is working at its best to produce more and more insulin, the body tissues (for example, muscle and fat cells) do not respond and become insensitive to the insulin. At this point, overt diabetes occurs as the body is no longer able to effectively use its insulin to maintain normal blood sugar levels. Over time, these high levels of sugar result in the complications we see all too often in patients with diabetes.
Jitahadi bought books on diabetes, nutrition, the glycemic index, and diabetes-friendly meals. Instead of slightly modifying her diet, Jitahadi decided to completely overhaul it. "I started realizing that what ['watch what you eat'] really meant was I needed to eat healthier, more balanced meals," she says. She wrote down everything she ate. And instead of dining out, she cooked meals from scratch. Jitahadi swapped white sugar for lower-glycemic sweeteners, traded in white rice for brown, lowered the amount of sodium she consumed, cut a lot of carbs, and made veggies the mainstay of each meal. (Her favorite: grated cauliflower sautéed with veggies and chicken or egg for low-carb fried "rice.")
Diabetes mellitus or type-2 diabetes, is one of the major non-communicable and fastest growing public health problems in the world, is a condition difficult to treat and expensive to manage. It has been estimated that the number of diabetes sufferers in the world will double from the current value of about 190 million to 325 million during the next 25 years.[1,2,3] Individuals with type-2 diabetes are at a high risk of developing a range of debilitating complications such as cardiovascular disease, peripheral vascular disease, nephropathy, changes to the retina and blindness that can lead to disability and premature death. It also imposes important medical and economic burdens. Genetic susceptibility and environmental influences seem to be the most important factors responsible for the development of this condition. However, a drastic increase of physical inactivity, obesity, and type-2 diabetes has been recently observed. The fact indicates that obesity and physical inactivity may constitute the main reasons for the increasing burden of diabetes in the developed world.[4,5,6,7,8,9,10]
The process of type 2 diabetes begins years or even decades before the diagnosis of diabetes, with insulin resistance. Insulin resistance is the beginning of the body not dealing well with sugar, which is the breakdown product of all carbohydrates. Insulin tells certain body cells to open up and store glucose as fat. When the cells stop responding your blood sugar rises, which triggers the release of more insulin in a vicious cycle. Insulin resistance is associated with abdominal obesity, high blood pressure, high triglycerides, and low HDL ("good cholesterol"). When these occur together, it is known as metabolic syndrome or pre-diabetes. It is a risk factor for heart disease and type 2 diabetes.
Fruits constitute a commercially important and nutritionally indispensable food commodity. Being a part of a balanced diet, fruits play a vital role in human nutrition by supplying the necessary growth regulating factors essential for maintaining normal health. They have been especially valuable for their ability to prevent vitamin C and vitamin A deficiencies. Fruits and vegetables are good source of vitamins, minerals, flavonoids (anti-oxidants), saponins, polyphenols, carotenoids (vitamin A-like compounds), isothiocyanates (sulfur-containing compounds), and several types of dietary fibers. The fruits and vegetables not only prevent malnutrition but also help in maintaining optimum health through a host of chemical components that are still being identified, tested, and measured. They prevent various chronic diseases like stroke, hypertension, birth defects, cataracts, diabetes, heart disease, cancers, diverticulosis, obstructive pulmonary disease (asthma and bronchitis), and obesity etc.[53,54,55,56] Diets that are high in insoluble fiber may offer the best protection against this disease. Fruits and vegetables are high in cellulose-a type of insoluble fiber. Diets that are high in fiber may be able to help in the management of diabetes. Soluble fiber delays glucose absorption from the small intestine and thus may help prevent the spike in blood glucose levels that follow a meal or snack. The long-term effect may be insignificant, however, due to the many other factors that affect blood glucose. The effects of the fruit and vegetables on the human health allowed to once again measuring the enormous stakes.[57,58,59,60] More and more emphasis is put on the importance of the diversity of food, and in particular of the fruit and vegetables. This new and effective approach to diabetes is remarkably simple. Here are 4 simple steps to managing your blood sugar (and weight, blood pressure, and cholesterol) with diet.[61,62,63,64,65,66,67,68,69,70]

Even if you have not been told that you have prediabetes, you could be worried about it, since 90% of the people with prediabetes are unaware that they have it. You are at higher risk if you are over 45 years old, do not get much exercise, have a family history of diabetes, or are African American, Native American, Hispanic/Latino, or Pacific Islander.
There is much you can do with lifestyle alone to prevent diabetes. In a landmark study, the NIH-sponsored Diabetes Prevention Program, scientists tracked 3,234 pre-diabetic men and women for three years. A third of them adopted lifestyle changes. Another third took a drug – metformin (Glucophage®). The remaining third, the control group, took a placebo. Those on the lifestyle-change plan reduced the progression to full-blown Type 2 diabetes by 58% compared to the control group. The reduction was even greater – 71% – among adults aged 60 and older. Treatment with the drug metformin reduced the progression of Type 2 diabetes by just 31%.
Carry a Rescue Snack: Going too long without eating can lead to dips in blood sugar, sometimes called “lows”, which create unpleasant symptoms, including ravenous hunger. This often leads to poor food choices, since we’re more focused on eating anything in sight, even if it’s not healthy. Rather than getting to this point, keep a healthy snack with you throughout the day in case you get stuck somewhere you didn’t plan at a mealtime. A balanced snack will combine a nutritious carb or veggie + source of protein or healthy fat.The chart below provides portable options you can mix and match to your tastes:
To help you avoid or limit fast food, Chong recommends planning ahead by packing healthy meals or snacks. Diabetes-friendly snack ideas include a piece of fruit, a handful of nuts, and yogurt. Also, if you absolutely must stop at a fast-food restaurant, steer clear of anything that’s deep-fried — such as french fries, chicken nuggets, and breaded fish or chicken, Chong says.
The group that made lifestyle changes was 58% less likely to develop diabetes compared to the placebo group. And the group that took Metformin was 31% less likely to develop diabetes compared to the placebo group. In other words – lifestyle changes and Metformin therapy can delay or prevent the onset of type 2 diabetes. Lifestyle changes (weight loss, healthy diet and activity) are the most effective intervention.
How do sugary drinks lead to this increased risk? Weight gain may explain the link: In both the Nurses’ Health Study II and the Black Women’s Health Study, women who increased their consumption of sugary drinks gained more weight than women who cut back on sugary drinks. (26, 28) Several studies show that children and adults who drink soda or other sugar-sweetened beverages are more likely to gain weight than those who don’t, (28, 30) and that switching from these to water or unsweetened beverages can reduce weight. (31) Even so, however, weight gain caused by sugary drinks may not completely explain the increased diabetes risk.  There is mounting evidence that sugary drinks contribute to chronic inflammation, high triglycerides, decreased “good” (HDL) cholesterol, and increased insulin resistance, all of which are risk factors for diabetes. (32)
A ketogenic diet for prediabetes might include about 20 to 50 grams per day of non-fiber carbohydrates, or about 5 to 10% of total calories from carbohydrates. The rest of your calories come from fat and protein. The food choices on this diet are similar to those on other low-carb diets, but you may need to further restrict some of the moderate-carbohydrate options that might be easier to fit in on a more moderate low-carb diet. Examples include fruit (an apple has 24 grams of non-fiber carbohydrates) and starchy vegetables (a half-cup of corn has 15 grams of non-fiber carbs).
If you make a purchase of a product linked from our website, it is possible that our organization may receive a portion of the final purchase price, through an affiliate program. Your price will not be affected by this. We only share resources that we trust and think may be of value. If you have feedback on any resource we share, we'd love to hear about it.

In fact, in a study published in the German journal Naturheilpraxis mit Naturalmedizin (Naturopathic Practice with Natural Medicine) the dry concentrated bark extract of Hintonia latiflora—combined with additional nutrients— significantly lowered HgBA1C values (average levels of blood sugar), fasting glucose levels (blood sugar before a meal) and postprandial (after eating) blood sugar levels.


Diabetic’s dietary practices are mainly influenced by cultural backgrounds. Concerning each of the dimensions of dietary practices, there were significant positive relationships between knowledge regarding diabetic diet and dietary practices. Knowledge was a salient factor related to dietary behaviors control.46 Moreover, patients’ knowledge on a recommended diet indicates their understanding of dietary guidelines which influenced their food selection and eating patterns.47 The association between dietary knowledge and dietary practices among T2DM patients in the previous studies were inconsistent. Another study revealed that there was no relationship between dietary knowledge and compliance of dietary practices.58 On the other hand, the same study found that a high dietary knowledge score was associated with following dietary recommendations and knowledgeable patients performed self-management activities in a better way. Dietary knowledge significantly influences dietary practices. In Indonesia, a study was conducted to measure dietary practices among diabetic patients, which elaborated that the Indonesian people, preferred to consume high-fat foods which lead to an increased risk of CVD.59 The trend of skipping breakfast has dramatically increased over the past 10 years in children, adolescents, and adults.60,61 There is increasing evidence that skipping breakfast is related with overweight and other health issues.62 In addition, frequent eating or snacking may also increase the body weight and risk of metabolic diseases.63,64 Rimm65 demarcated western and prudent dietary patterns. The prudent dietary pattern was characterized by increased consumption of fish, poultry, various vegetables and fruits whereas; the western dietary pattern was characterized by an increased consumption of processed and red meat, chips, dairy products, refined grains, and sweets and desserts. These patterns were previously associated with T2DM risk. The glycemic index is an indicator of the postprandial blood glucose response to food per gram of carbohydrate compared with a reference food such as white bread or glucose. Hence, the glycemic load represents both the quality and quantity of the carbohydrates consumed.66-69 Another study conducted in Lebanon demonstrated direct correlation of the refined grains and desserts and fast food patterns with T2DM, however, in the same study an inverse correlation was observed between the traditional food pattern and T2DM among Lebanese adults.70
Most people with diabetes find that it is quite helpful to sit down with a dietitian or nutritionist for a consult about what is the best diet for them and how many daily calories they need. It is quite important for diabetics to understand the principles of carbohydrate counting and how to help control blood sugar levels through proper diet. Below are some general principles about the diabetic diet.
Balancing carbohydrates is integral to a diabetes-friendly diet. Processed and refined carbs aren’t the best options, but including whole grains and dietary fiber can be beneficial in many ways. Whole grains are rich in fiber and beneficial vitamins and minerals. Dietary fiber helps with digestive health, and helps you feel more satisfied after eating.
"Many people with type 2 have had type 2 for a while prior to diagnosis," says Anne Peters, MD, director of the University of Southern California Clinical Diabetes Program and an author of the ADA's position statement on the management of type 2. A person who has had diabetes for five years before being diagnosed may have complications that require good blood glucose control—pronto. It will most likely take medications to achieve a quick improvement. Plus, you can always stop a medication once you've started it if lifestyle changes lead to on-target blood glucose levels—with your health care provider's guidance, of course.
Today’s widespread availability of oral diabetes medications has decreased the number of adult diabetics taking long-term insulin. However, as we learned in Chapter 5, those diabetes medications carry serious side effects with them. Furthermore, why would you want your condition to deteriorate, requiring progressively more potent medications with increasingly serious side effects? It sounds like it is definitely time for a better solution. The good news? Hintonia to the rescue!
Pay attention to the balance of macronutrients (fat, protein, and carbohydrates) in a meal to support stable blood sugar levels. Specifically, fat, protein, and fiber all slow down the absorption of carbohydrates and thus allow time for a slower, lower insulin release and a steady transport of glucose out of the blood and into the target tissues - this is a good thing.
It’s best to get fiber from food. But if you can’t get enough, then taking fiber supplements can help. Examples include psyllium, methylcellulose, wheat dextrin, and calcium polycarbophil. If you take a fiber supplement, increase the amount you take slowly. This can help prevent gas and cramping. It’s also important to drink enough liquids when you increase your fiber intake.

The evidence is growing stronger that eating red meat (beef, pork, lamb) and processed red meat (bacon, hot dogs, deli meats) increases the risk of diabetes, even among people who consume only small amounts. The latest support comes from a “meta analysis,” or statistical summary, that combined findings from the long-running Nurses’ Health Study I and II and the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study with those of six other long-term studies. The researchers looked at data from roughly 440,000 people, about 28,000 of whom developed diabetes during the course of the study. (43) They found that eating just one daily 3-ounce serving of red meat—say, a steak that’s about the size of a deck of cards—increased the risk of type 2 diabetes by 20 percent. Eating even smaller amounts of processed red meat each day—just two slices of bacon, one hot dog, or the like—increased diabetes risk by 51 percent.


The breakfast should be 1/3 fruit, 1/3 starchy fiber foods (multigrain bread and cereal products), and 1/3 protein (nuts, eggs, tofu, beans, lentils, low-fat dairy products). The lunch and dinner plates should be 1/2 vegetables, 1/4 starchy fiber foods, and 1/4 protein. Choose whole grains, such as whole wheat pasta, whole wheat bread, and brown rice to increase fiber intake. Most of these are low in fat. Choose only lean meat and poultry.[81,82,83,84] Remove skin and trim fat before cooking (50-100 g or 2-4 oz). See the milk fat (MF) of all dairy products. Use skim or 1% milk products and low-fat cheese (less than 20% MF), or choose fortified soy products. Reduce your total fat intake (less than 25% - 35% of your daily calories). To achieve this, always try to choose low fat foods and avoid fried foods. Limit saturated and trans fats to less than 10% of your daily calories. Try to always choose unsaturated fats such as olive and canola oils and non-hydrogenated margarine (in moderation). Saturated and trans fats raise blood cholesterol levels, while unsaturated fats lower blood cholesterol. Saturated fats are solid at room temperature and are usually of animal origin. They are found in meats, whole milk, dairy products, butter, and hard margarines.[85,86,87,88,89,90] Trans fats are found in baked and pre-packaged foods. Hydrogenation is a process that changes liquid vegetable oil into a solid fat such as hard margarine. The hydrogenation process changes some of the good fats into cholesterol-raising saturated and trans fats. People with diabetes are at a greater risk of developing or have already high levels of fats in their heart and blood vessels. Omega-3 fatty acids are found in cold water fish such as herring, mackerel, salmon, trout, sardines and tuna, and in flaxseeds (2 tbsp per day, freshly ground).[90,91,92,93] Three to four servings of fish per week is recommended as part of a healthy, balanced diet. Omega-enriched foods are also available in supermarkets such as omega-3 eggs and omega-3 enriched dairy products. Omega-3 supplements: Always look for the active ingredients DHA and EPA. Recommendations are 600-900 mg/day. Always check with your doctor or registered dietitian before taking any supplements. Increase fiber in your diet by eating more whole grain foods, vegetables, fruits, and legumes.[94,95,96] These foods also contain vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants and have a lower glycemic index. Low glycemic index foods will help to keep your blood sugar levels in the target range.[97,98,99]
Eat every two to three hours. Spreading your energy needs throughout the day allows for healthier choices to be made and your blood sugar to stabilize. Work towards achieving a healthy meal pattern of breakfast (the first meal), followed by a small snack, then lunch (mid-day meal), another snack, dinner (last-meal of the day) and sometimes a small end of the day snack.

The process of type 2 diabetes begins years or even decades before the diagnosis of diabetes, with insulin resistance. Insulin resistance is the beginning of the body not dealing well with sugar, which is the breakdown product of all carbohydrates. Insulin tells certain body cells to open up and store glucose as fat. When the cells stop responding your blood sugar rises, which triggers the release of more insulin in a vicious cycle. Insulin resistance is associated with abdominal obesity, high blood pressure, high triglycerides, and low HDL ("good cholesterol"). When these occur together, it is known as metabolic syndrome or pre-diabetes. It is a risk factor for heart disease and type 2 diabetes.
Hemoglobin A1c or HbA1c is a protein on the surface of red blood cells. The HbA1c test is used to monitor blood sugar levels in people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes over time. Normal HbA1c levels are 6% or less. HbA1c levels can be affected by insulin use, fasting, glucose intake (oral or IV), or a combination of these and other factors. High hemoglobin A1c levels in the blood increases the risk of microvascular complications, for example, diabetic neuropathy, eye, and kidney disease.
The superfood vinegar is best consumed as vinaigrette dressing on your salad, but it has beneficial effects no matter how you enjoy it. Vinegar slows gastric emptying, which has several beneficial effects for people with type 2 diabetes. This slows the glucose release into the bloodstream, allowing for a small, steady insulin response instead of a large insulin surge. Vinegar also increases satiety, so if you enjoy salad with vinaigrette as your first course, you are less likely to overeat during the main course.
There is no single best diet plan for prediabetes. If you ask 100 people, “What is the best diet for prediabetes?,” you may get 100 different answers – and they may all be correct. Your plan should help you control your weight, provide the nutrients and healthy foods you need to lower risk for diabetes and other chronic diseases, and fit into your lifestyle so that you can make it work for the long term.
Checking your blood glucose levels several times a day helps you understand how your body responds to medications, exercise, and the foods you eat. When first starting out, keeping your glucose within a tight margin can often feel like hitting a moving target. It can suddenly spike with no reason or plummet the next day despite total adherence to your treatment.
×